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Established on 20 May 2000 in Ancona, at the Summit on Development and Security, the Adriatic-Ionian Initiative aims to promote, develop and strengthen security in the Adriatic-Ionian region, intensify cooperation among the countries of the region and provide incentives for countries in transition towards the integration processes and joining the European Union.

The AII counts nine Members: Republic of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Republic of Croatia, Italian Republic, Republic of North Macedonia, Republic of Slovenia, Montenegro and the Republic of Serbia.

The AII is realised through forum for the exchange of political opinions and, at the same time, a forum for achieving multilateral cooperation in several areas (transport, maritime affairs, tourism, education, protection of the environment and cultural heritage, development of small and medium-sized enterprises, fight against all forms of organised crime, rural development).

After gaining its independence, Montenegro became a full member of the AII on 1 June 2007.

Parliamentary cooperation framework was established in 2001 in Zadar during the Croatian Presidency of the Initiative and 14 conferences of presidents of parliaments have been held since. At the end of each conference, the adoption of joint statements, declarations, proposals and recommendations has been held as a practice, which summarise conclusions of the conference and provide guidance for further action.

At a conference held in Belgrade in 2012, the final proposals and recommendations emphasised the necessity of establishing a wider framework of parliamentary cooperation, through the establishment of permanent delegations of national parliaments to the AII, like the case was with other regional initiatives.

Montenegro took over one-year chairmanship of the Adriatic and Ionian initiative in June 2018.